Bentley Subglacial Trench, the Lowest Point on Earth Not Covered by Ocean

The Bentley Subglacial Trench, a vast topographic trench in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, is the lowest point on earth not covered by ocean. The size of Mexico, this trench is 2,555 meters (8,382 ft) below sea level. It was discovered in 1961 by geophysicist Charles R. Bentley who was the scientist in charge of the scientific expeditions in West Antarctica at that time.

Antarctic Region map

Map of the Antarctic Region (see full resolution). Image via

The trench is subglacial, meaning that it is permanently covered by the largest ice cap in the world. Most people do not count it as the lowest point because if the ice melted, the area would be covered by water.

La Rinconada, Peru, the Highest City in the World

La Rinconada, Peru is considered to be the highest city in the world according to the National Geographic Magazine. This city, whose population relies mainly on gold mine, lies 16,732.28 feet above sea level in a hostile Andean region.

La Rinconada, Peru, the Highest City in the World

Houses in La Rinconada, Peru, the Highest City in the World. Image via

In spite of the lack of oxygen and temperatures that fall to 20 Celsius below zero, the city is inhabited by more than 30,000 people whose source of income is to dig through the ice and rock to mine gold. The city has no running water, no sanitation system and houses has no heating system. Because of poor mining practice, the city is contaminated by mercury used to separate the gold from the rock.

Cheetah, the Fastest Land Animal in the World

The Cheetah, a large-sized feline that live in Africa and Middle East, is the fastest land animal in the world. It can reach to a top speed of between 112 – 120 kilometers per hour in short burst. It has the ability to accelerate from 0 to 100 kilometers per hour in just three seconds.

Cheetah, the fastest land animla in the world

Cheetah, the fastest land animla in the world. Image via

Cheetah’s remarkable speed comes from the species’ modified paws. It has semi-retractable claws, which is known only in three other cat species: the fishing cat, the flat-headed cat and the Iriomote cat, that offers extra grip when it is chasing preys. Cheetah also has large nostrils that allow for increased oxygen intake, and an enlarged heart and lungs that work together to circulate oxygen efficiently. When chasing prey, its respiratory rate increases from 60 to 150 breaths per minute and it uses its tail as a rudder-like means of steering to allow it to make sharp turns.

Russia, the Largest Country in the World by Land Area

With a total land area of 16,377,742 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world by land area. It’s surrounding waters measures 720,500 square kilometers making the total area, land and water included, 17,098,242 square miles. It covers more than one eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area. It’s population of 143 million (2012 estimate) makes it the ninth most populous country in the world.

Russia aka Russian Federation

Russia aka Russian Federation. Image via

Russia, aka the Russian Federation, shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. Because of it’s size, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It has the world’s largest reserves of mineral and energy resources which makes it the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the world.

Mammoth Cave, the Longest Cave System in the World

The Mammoth Cave located in Edmonson, Hart, and Barren counties in Kentucky, USA is the longest cave system in the world that has been discovered. The total length of the cave system is 630 kilometers (390 miles). It is a World Heritage Site since October 27, 1981 and the area is U.S. National Park known as Mammoth Cave National Park and was established to preserve it. The total length is still growing with new discoveries and connections add several miles each year.

The Rotunda Room at Mammoth Cave

The Rotunda Room at Mammoth Cave. Image via

An African-American slave named Stephen Bishop who was also a guide to the cave during the 1840s and 1850s, was one of the first people to make extensive maps of the cave. He named many of the cave’s features and became one of Mammoth Cave’s most celebrated historical figures.

Ranger guided tour at Mammoth Cave

Ranger guided tour at Mammoth Cave. Image via

The Card Players, the Most Expensive Painting To Date

At $254 million dollars, The Card Players is currently the most expensive painting ever sold. It was painted by the artist Paul Cézanne of France between the 1892-1893. It was sold by George Embiricos to the Royal Family of Qatar in 2011.

The Card Players, currently the most expensive painting

The Card Players, currently the most expensive painting ever sold. Image via

The Card Players is a series of oil paintings of varying size and the number of players depicted by Cézanne. It was painted during the final period of his life in the early 1890s. The painting above is the version that fetched the record setting price. All the paintings of the series depicts Provençal peasants smoking their pipes and playing cards.

Trinidad Moruga Scorpion, Currently the Hottest Pepper in the World

The Trinidad Moruga Scorpion pepper is currently the hottest pepper in the world. This chili pepper that is endemic to the district of Moruga in Trinidad and Tobago was identified by the Chili Pepper Institute of New Mexico State University on February 2012 as the new hottest in the world. It beat the Naga Jolokia which has been tested at over 1,001,300 Scoville heat units

Trinidad Moruga Scorpion, the Hottest Pepper in the World

Trinidad Moruga Scorpion, the Hottest Pepper in the World. Image via

This golf ball-sized chili pepper has a rank of 2,009,231 SHU on the Scoville scale – a measurement of the spicy heat of a chili pepper. According to Paul Bosland, a chili expert, the hotness of Trinidad Moruga Scorpion is gradual and nasty. To give you an idea how hot it is, a Jalapeño pepper has a rank of between 2,500 – 10,000 SHU on the Scoville scale.

See this guy eat one.

Stapes, the Smallest Bone in the Human Body

The stapes, which in found in the middle, is the smallest and lightest bone in the human body. This stirrup-shaped bone or ossicle transmits sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis. It also stabilized by the stapedius muscle, which is innervated by the facial nerve.

Cross-section of human middle ear

Cross-section of human middle ear. Image via

Stapes is between 2-3 millimeter in size – miniature compare to the femur, the largest bone in the human body

Stapes close-up

Stapes close-up. Image via

World War 2, the Deadliest War in the World

The World War 2 or World War II, or the Second World War is the deadliest war that happened in the history of the world. Estimates show that between 40 to 72 million died in that war. It started on September 1, 1939 and ended on September 2, 1945, a total of 6 years and 1 day.

World war 2 picture collage

World war 2 picture collage. Image via

World War 2 begun when Germany invaded Poland and ended when the United States of America dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Atomic explosion at Nagasaki on August 9, 1945

Atomic explosion at Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Image via